Be A Dusun Distributor >>

Bluetooth Gateway Configuration Guideline

Table of Contents

A BLE gateway is an IoT gateway device integrating a Bluetooth communication module and a network communication module (such as Ethernet, wireless LAN, 4G cellular network, etc.), and is used to collect information sent by Bluetooth devices and upload them to the network server.

 

Bluetooth Low Energy gateway has four main functions: Bluetooth scanning, connection, Bluetooth data transfer and indoor positioning. Bluetooth gateway devices can be widely used in such places as schools, shopping malls, factories, nursing homes, exhibition halls, tourist attractions, airports, etc., to help personnel or asset positioning, sensor data collection, etc. 

 

If you buy Bluetooth gateway for your IoT projects and solutions, how do you plan to configure Bluetooth gateway to make it talk with your BLE devices? This article is going to give you a Bluetooth gateway configuration guideline. You may purchase other brand bluetooth gateway, and that’s alright. This guideline just aims to give you some ideas and inspiration.

Get to Know System Block Diagram and Choose OS for Bluetooth Gateway

Here Dusun IoT recommends you to use Linux system to implement an application over Bluez stack to talk with BLE devices.

As depicted in figure 1, Linux supports the BLE protocol by running the Bluez stack. BlueZ provides support for the core Bluetooth layers and protocols. It is flexible, efficient and uses a modular implementation. The BlueZ stack supports all core Bluetooth protocols and layers now. Users can write BLE applications using Bluez APIs to manipulate BLE devices.

 

DM 20220705133748 008
Figure 1. Bluetooth Gateway system architecture

 Dusun Bluetooth gateways run the Linux OpenWrt systemBluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is intended to provide considerably reduced power consumption and cost while maintaining a similar communication range with Bluetooth. BLE is suitable for a lot of IoT applications. Many operating systems support BLE and thus BLE is very popular.

The Dusun IoT gateways support most connectivity protocols including BLE(4.x/5.0/Mesh), ZigBee 1.2/3.0, Z-Wave, TCP/UDP, etc. Users can connect the gateway with various BLE devices. 

Dusun Bluetooth Gateway Feature

System

  • OS: [email protected] OpenWrt
  • Processor: MTK7620A (MIPS24KEc(580MHZ))
  • RAM: 128MB
  • Flash: 64MB

Wireless Protocol

  • LTE-M1
  • Bluetooth Low Energy
  • Wi-Fi
  • Zigbee3.0
  • Z-Wave

Ethernet

  • WLAN
  • LAN

Bluetooth Gateway System Configuration Steps (Take Dusun Bluetooth Gateway as an Example)

DM 20220705133748 009
Figure 2. gateway→PC connection diagram

The IoT BLE gateway can be configured following these steps:

  1. Connect the Bluetooth gateway to the PC and power up, according to figure 2;
  2. Open a web browser on PC, input Gateway IP Address: 192.168.66.1. Enter the username and Password (Username: root Password: root),and then login to the gateway;
DM 20220705133748 010

3) Make system configuration at the system menu, the timezone, password and others can be revised here;

DM 20220705133748 011

4) Configure the network at the network sub-memu;

DM 20220705133748 012
DM 20220705133748 013

5) When the configuration is completed please reboot the gateway; Then users can log in the Bluetooth gateway by inputting the following commands in a terminal, and then input your password. IP_addr is the IP address which user-configured above. The default IP is 192.168.66.1. The below figure shows the login scene. You can successfuly login into the Bluetooth gateway through ssh [email protected]_addr

DM 20220705133748 014

Connecting a BLE Sensor with Bluetoothctl (Take Dusun Bluetooth Gateway as an Example)

The Dusun Bluetooth gateway is installed Bluez version v5.50. Bluez has provided many command utilities for controlling BLE devices. Bluetoothctl is the main command for configuring Bluetooth devices on Linux. Users can use this utility to know more about their BLE devices and are familiar with the connecting steps.

An pulse oximeter BLE sensor is used for living example. The steps for connecting and managing the pulse oximeter BLE sensor is shown below:

1) Open Bluetoothctl and scan Bluetooth devices to find the pulse oximeter sensor(whose name is my oximeter);

DM 20220705133748 015

2) Pair the sensor and connect it;

DM 20220705133748 016
3) List attributes and select the characteristic for getting data. Use select-attribute and then notify on, the data will be pushed to the command line as the below figure shows.
DM 20220705133748 017
DM 20220705133748 018

After these steps, the user can know something about the sensor and its BLE profiles which can also be seen from the sensor user manual. 

How to Program by Using Bluez Dbus APIs to Get the Sensor Data

A sample: communicate with an pulse oximeter BLE sensor using Bluez.

We have provided a sample application to get the BLE pulse oximeter sensor data.They include the Bluez Dbus library, and several c program files. The pulse oximeter sensor operating functions is contained in the Oximeter.c. The main function in the main.c is shown as below.

				
					
int main(int argc, char *argv[])

{

GError *error = NULL;

GDBusClient *client;


INIT_LOG("HL");

/*init global data for bluez operation*/

init_global_data();

init_curl();

/*register the drivers you have written*/

load_healt_drivers();

  /*create a main loop object*/

main_loop = g_main_loop_new(NULL, FALSE);

/*set up the dbus connection*/

dbus_conn = g_dbus_setup_bus(DBUS_BUS_SYSTEM, NULL, NULL);


/*create a bluez client for dbus connection object*/

client = g_dbus_client_new(dbus_conn, "org.bluez", "/org/bluez");

  /* set connect/disconnect/signal handler function*/

g_dbus_client_set_connect_watch(client, connect_handler, NULL);

g_dbus_client_set_disconnect_watch(client, disconnect_handler, NULL);

g_dbus_client_set_signal_watch(client, message_handler, NULL);

  /* set proxy handlers*/

g_dbus_client_set_proxy_handlers(client, proxy_added, proxy_removed,

property_changed, NULL);

  /* set ready */

g_dbus_client_set_ready_watch(client, client_ready,  NULL);

  /*running in a loop*/

g_main_loop_run(main_loop);


  /*release the resources*/

g_dbus_client_unref(client);

dbus_connection_unref(dbus_conn);

g_main_loop_unref(main_loop);

return 0;

}
				
			

Users should note the function load_healt_drivers();, in which the function register_health_driver(&Oximeter_driver) is invoked to register the callback functions which process the upcoming events and then get the data the sensor reported. The UUID_Oximeter_SERVICE is the primary service that its characteristic can be read to get oximeter values.

The HealthDriver and BluetoothDeviceCallbacks is defined as

				
					
typedef struct HealthDriver_

{

char * name;

char * service_uuid;

struct BluetoothDeviceCallbacks_ * callbacks;

}HealthDriver;

typedef struct BluetoothDeviceCallbacks_

{

void (*init) (BluetoothDevice * btdev);

void (*exit) (BluetoothDevice * btdev);

void (*scan_found)(BluetoothDevice * btdev);

void (*connect_state_changed) (BluetoothDevice * btdev, bool connected);

void (*service_added) (BluetoothDevice * btdev, GattService * service);

void (*characteristics_added) (BluetoothDevice * btdev, GattCharacteristic * characteristics);

void (*characteristics_notify)(BluetoothDevice * btdev, GattCharacteristic * characteristics,

 const unsigned char * value, int len);

//void (*property_changed)();

}  BluetoothDeviceCallbacks;
				
			

In Oximeter.c a BluetoothDeviceCallbacks instance and a HealthDriver instance are defined:

				
					
static BluetoothDeviceCallbacks Oximeter_callbacks =

{

.init = Oximeter_init,

.connect_state_changed = Oximeter _connect_state_changed,

.scan_found = Oximeter _scan_found ,

.characteristics_added = Oximeter_characteristics_added,

.characteristics_notify = Oximeter_characteristics_notify,

};

#define UUID_Oximeter_SERVICE  "cdeacb80-5235-4c07-8846-93a37ee6b86d"

HealthDriver   Oximeter_driver =

{

.name = " Oximeter detector",

  .service_uuid =  UUID_ Oximeter_SERVICE,

  .callbacks = &Oximeter _callbacks,

};
				
			

Oximeter_init,Oximeter_connect_state_changed,Oximeter_scan_found, Oximeter_characteristics_added, Oximeter_characteristics_notify are functions to process connection events when the sensor is connected to the gateway. Oximeter_characteristics_notify process the data notified. Users should write their own callback functions according to their sensor characteristics to control the sensor.

1) Get the Openwork toolchain and copy it to a Linux PC

Get the cross compile OpenWrt-Toolchain from Dusun, whose name is openwrt-sdk-ramips-mt7620_gcc-4.8-linaro_uClibc-0.9.33.2. Linux-x86_64.tar.bz2. Decompress the downloaded OpenWrt Toolchain to a local folder (E.g.: home/software/OpenWrt-SDK).

2) Compiled the attached code files

Copy the above code file to the Linux PC and decompress it to a folder (E.g.: home/software/test). Open ./BLEsample/example/ folder, and edit the Makefile file to revise the CROSSTOOLDIR to the OpenWrt toolchain directory you created above. This is depicted in Figure 3.

DM 20220705133748 019
Figure 3. change the CROSSTOODIR path
DM 20220705133748 020
Figure 4. the test application compilation

Then open a terminal on the Linux PC, and type the following commands:

cd BLEsample; sudo make

Finally, the test bin file which can be run in the gateway has been compiled. (Figure 4).

3) Copy the compiled test bin file into the gateway and run it

There are some ways one can do it. Under Linux PC, you can use SCP command (scp local_file remote_username @remote_ip:remote_folder) to do it.

Make sure the gateway is connected to the same router with PC, then run the following commands:
scp test [email protected]:/root

DM 20220705133748 021
DM 20220705133748 022

Then remote login to the Bluetooth gateway using SSH commands or SSH client (windows: putty or SecureCrt) and run the copied bin file. The login password can be revised following the configuration steps in the above sections. Finally, we power up the oximeter device and run the test file, we can see the data the oximeter notified to the program as figure 5 shows. The data can be analyzed according to its manual. Figure 6/7 shows the sensor and Bluetooth gateway for testing respectively.

DM 20220705133748 023
Figure 5. the printed messages when notify callback functions invoked
DM 20220705133748 024
Figure 6. the pulse oximeter device for testing
DM 20220705133748 025
Figure 7. the Dusun Bluetooth Gateway for testing

Looking For An IoT Device Supplier For Your Projects?

CONTACT US

    This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply.

    CONTACT US

      This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply.

      Welcome to DusunIoT

      Hi there 👋 Is there anything we can help you with today? Please fill in the form below for the team to follow up if you become disconnected.