What is LoRaWAN Gateway? Complete Guide in 2024

In the LoRaWAN IoT architecture, a LoRaWAN gateway is a key piece of hardware that allows data to be gathered from devices and sent to a network server. Without a LoRaWAN gateway, it can be said that there is no LoRaWAN IoT network. This article is going to tell you what is LoRaWAN gateway.
Table of Contents

LoRaWAN gets a lot of attention in all narrow-band LPWAN IoT applications. LoRa is for Long Range, while WAN, of course, refers to a Wide Area Network. The LoRaWAN network architecture uses a star topology. Information collected by Battery-powered sensors (also known as terminal nodes, or “things”) are transmitted to LoRaWAN gateways with IP addresses, and then forwards the data to the web server, where it can be used to execute decisions, data visualizations and events applicable to the project or application.

The LoRaWAN gateway, a multi-channel transceiver, is located at the core of the LoRa star network, and play the role of bridge between the terminals and the servers. LoRaWAN gateways are sometimes called LoRa base stations or LoRa concentrators.

How Does a LoRaWAN Gateway Works

LoRaWAN specifies and regulates device behavior in massive networks and optimizes a number of wireless parameters to maximize network capacity and dependability. Wide coverage (up to 50km in open regions and 10 km in urban environments) and incredibly low power consumption (battery life up to 10 years) are its key advantages. These two components, along with the star topology (LoRaWAN gateway acts as the hub to transmit messages between terminal devices and network servers), make LoRaWAN network deployment incredibly easy—basically “plug and play”.

The terminals connects with LoRaWAN gateways through a single hop, while the gateway and network server are linked through standard IP. Any particular communication in a big LoRaWAN network is often received by multiple receivers, the server then notifies one LoRaWAN gateway to answer, while the rest ignore the transmission. Because only one LoRaWAN gateway is sending and overlapping gateways may simply listen for other broadcasts, this technique helps prevent downlink and uplink collisions.

LoRa Chips

As we all know, Semtech, a semiconductor company with extensive expertise in the semiconductor development for over 60 years, holds the patent for the LoRa technology. All LoRa chips now on the market were produced by Semtech for the ecological growth of LoRa. Semtech then promoted these chips to the market through direct sales or intellectual property authorization. So how many different kinds of LoRa core chips exist in the market now?

Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semtech

Types of LoRa Chips

LoRa chips fall into two categories: radio frequency transceiver (also known as node chip, or terminal chip) and gateway chip (also known as base station chip).

The LoRa radio frequency transceiver chip is a simple small single chip that includes all the physical layers and control commands of LoRa. This chip is used by the majority of LoRa terminals now on the market. Meanwhile, LoRa RF transceiver chips can also be used to make gateways designed for straightforward applications, such as single-channel or dual-channel gateways. For instance, this node chip is frequently used to implement the function of the smart gateway gateway to read smart meters.

The LoRaWAN gateway chip is a dedicated chip customized for the LoRaWAN protocol, which has more strong processing capabilities. Although LoRa node chip can also be used as gateway because it includes an entire LoRa communication function within, building LoRaWAN network  requires a dedicated LoRaWAN gateway chip to complete larger area coverage, higher throughput and faster computing power.

If you’re still unsure about the differences, consider this Wi-Fi comparison: the Wi-Fi module chip in a smartphone is analogous to a LoRa node chip, but the Wi-Fi module chip in an industrial-grade Wi-Fi AP (access point) is analogous to a LoRa gateway chip.

Most of the time, mobile phone Wi-Fi can only be utilized as a Wi-Fi terminal. Similar to the LoRa node chip, a mobile phone’s Wi-Fi can occasionally be used as a portable router or hotspot. Because this LoRa node chip includes an entire LoRa communication function within, LoRa nodes are often used as LoRa terminals, however they may also be utilized as gateways when appropriate.

But the requirements for industrial-grade Wi-Fi AP are higher. Along with requiring more throughput, it also makes sure that communications are stable and across long distances. Dedicated chips are required since the commonly seen Wi-Fi module chips used in mobile devices cannot provide this need. support.Therefore, a more powerful LoRaWAN chip is needed.

LoRaWAN Gateway Chip

The first generation of LoRaWAN digital baseband chips are SX1301 and SX1308, which are in charge of modulating and demodulating various digital signals used by LoRaWAN gateways. SX1301 and SX1308 are primarily utilized in outdoor and interior gateways, respectively. A radio frequency front-end chip is also necessary for a LoRaWAN gateway to function in addition to digital signal modulation and demodulation.

In 2019, Semtech launched the second-generation LoRaWAN gateway chip, including the digital baseband chip SX1302 and the RF front-end chip SX1250.  SX1302 (the chip used by Dusun IoT’s LoRaWAN gateway) is a brand-new baseband LoRa® chip for gateways. Launched by Semtech n 2019. It excels at lowering current consumption, makes thermal design for gateways simpler, and lowers the cost of the Bill Of Materials while yet being able to handle more traffic than earlier devices.

Constitution of LoRaWAN Gateways

A LoRaWAN gateway mainly consists of two components: host and concentrator. The host is the brain of the LoRaWAN gateway.  It is basically a microcomputer that is in charge of directing the data packets to the network server and operating the concentrator to enable wireless transmission and reception. The packet forwarder, a crucial component of host software, chooses which network server will take the data packets gathered by the LoRaWAN gateway.

The concentrator is the RF (radio frequency) component of the LoRaWAN gateway, which contains an RF chip in its front-end portion and can simultaneously receive data. The concentrator has a digital baseband chip that processes the RF signal digitally so that the host can understand it. The host and concentrator of the LoRaWAN gateway communicate via serial at the board level.

In addition to the concentrator and the host, every LoRaWAN gateway needs one more important thing, the enclosure. The enclosure shields the gateway from external environmental factors. According to the anticipated usage environment, the enclosure may change, for instance, the indoor gateway adopts a compact-design enclosure. On the other hand, LoRaWAN gateway outdoor employ stronger, more resilient, and waterproof enclosures.

Frequency of LoRaWAN Gateways

Where WiFi uses 2.4 and 5 GHz frequencies, LoRa uses different open frequencies depending on where the network is operating. It operates in the Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) RF bands, which vary based on geographic location. For details, please refer to the regional parameter of DSGW-014’s specification parameters.

regional frequencies of lorawan gateway

What needs to be explained here is that the LoRaWAN gateway and the device must be in the same frequency to work. The LoRaWAN device won’t be detectable by the gateway if it operates on a different frequency from the LoRaWAN gateway. The LoRaWAN gateway is unable to send the device data to the network server in this situation. 

Online vs Offline Deployment of LoRaWAN Gateways

LoRaWAN gateways can be deployed online or offline according to the needs and limitations of IoT applications. A backhaul network is required for an online gateway in order to connect to the Internet; options for this backhaul network include WiFi, Ethernet, cellular networks, etc. 

The online gateway mainly uses the LoRaWAN network server deployed in the cloud, these servers mainly include The Things Stack and AWS IoT Core for LoRaWAN, etc.

Explore The Things Network TTN Gateways

Explore AWS LoRaWAN Gateways

The built-in web server of the LoRaWAN gateway itself may be used when the LoRaWAN gateway is installed offline, or it can connect to a web server that is locally hosted on a PC or server. Chirpstack is one of its popular web servers for local networks. In this scenario, the gateway must register with the LoRaWAN network server whether it is online or offline, and then adjust the packet forwarder properly.

LoRa vs LoRaWAN

LoRa is a wireless low-power wide-area network technology. It is a Semtech-exclusive ultra-long-distance wireless transmission technique that is based on spread spectrum technology. LoRa works in physical layer transmission to makes it possible for data to be sent between devices. It extends the range of data gathering and device network connectivity, avoiding the added expense brought on by wiring deployment.

LoRaWAN is a set of communication protocol and system architecture developed for LoRa long-distance communication network. It is a medium access control layer (MAC) protocol built on top of LoRa modulation that adds scheduling on networking, routing, uplink and downlink to optimize battery usage and, most importantly, improve security. In summary, LoRaWAN is a system that employs LoRa modules to transmit and receive signals in accordance with predetermined rules or to define parameters.

Benefits of Using LoRaWAN Gateways

LoRaWAN is open, free to all, and unencumbered by any usage or copyright fees. Additionally, since LoRa typically operates in the licensed gigahertz wireless band, anyone is free to build a basic LoRaWAN network. Moreover, LoRaWAN network enjoys advantages of low cost, wide-area connectivity, and low power consumption, and there are a lot of open source platforms available. It’s no wonder that so many people uses LoRaWAN gateways to build personalized IoT solutions.

The LoRaWAN gateway is the “middleman” between the device and the network server. Its first duty is to pick the right frequency for packet reception, during which the LoRaWAN gateway is registered with the packet forwarder. Its second duty is to send the data to the network server correctly. With these fully configured, it is feasible to have a functional LoRaWAN gateway quickly. What benefits specifically come with utilizing a LoRaWAN gateway, then?

Long-Range Communication

LoRaWAN gateways enable devices to communicate across distances of up to several kilometres in open spaces. Applications that need coverage over wide areas, like smart city installations, farm monitoring, asset tracking, and industrial IoT, benefit from this expanded range.

Low Power Consumption and Longer Service Life

Because LoRaWAN technology uses so little power, devices may run for a long time on batteries. A LoRaWAN gateway is the best choice for applications that need long-lasting batteries and minimal maintenance since it allows devices to broadcast data over great distances while using very little power.


Adding more gateways makes it simple to expand LoRaWAN networks. Each gateway increases the network’s capacity and coverage area, enabling the connection of more devices. LoRaWAN is appropriate for both small- and large-scale IoT deployments because to its scalability.


For IoT connectivity, LoRaWAN gateways provide a cheap alternative. Compared to conventional cellular networks, they offer long-range coverage with less infrastructure needed. Because LoRaWAN devices require less power, they require fewer battery changes and recharges overall, which results in cost savings.

Flexibility and Versatility

A variety of applications and use cases are supported by LoRaWAN gateways. They can be combined with different kinds of sensors and devices to enable a range of IoT applications, including smart agriculture, smart metering, asset tracking, and environmental monitoring. LoRaWAN technology’s adaptability enables customization and adjustment to specific industry requirements.


To protect data transfer and guarantee the privacy of IoT devices, LoRaWAN contains strong security features. Encryption protects communications between end points, gateways, and the network server from unauthorised access and data manipulation. In IoT deployments involving sensitive information or vital infrastructure, this level of protection is essential.

LoRaWAN Gateway Recommendation

LoRaWAN gateways don’t use a lot of power, require little bandwidth and have wide coverage areas with large network capacities – all at a relatively low cost. Of course, your mileage may vary depending on the LoRaWAN gateway you choose for your project. 

When you’re evaluating gateways, you’ll want greater data capacity and a stable network topology, accomplished by the quality of its RF processing.  Gateways for indoor and outdoor projects, as well as larger undertakings like smart cities, include: 

dsgw 014 Multi Protocol ip66

DSGW-014 LoRaWAN outdoor gateway uses high-performance PX30 quad-core processor with big memory (RAM2G and eMMC up to 128GB), SX1302 LoRa chip, IP66 waterproof inclosure, and industrial design to perform well in harsh weather, extended temperatures, and high humidity throughout the seasons.

DSGW-014 LoRaWAN LTE 4G gateway supports multiple protocols like Wi-Fi 2.4G/5G, Bluetooth 5.2, GPS, Wi-Fi, and Ethernet (PoE) for flexible deployment and highly available outdoor wireless coverage in densely built-up cities, large industrial sites, wide farms, or remote extraction or energy production areas.

DSGW-014 LoRa outdoor gateway can be mounted on a telecommunications tower, stand, or wall. It integrates with LNS (LoRaWAN network server) for zero-code onboarding with public and private LoRaWAN network servers like Chirpstack, AWS IoT Core, LORIOT, and Things Stack, saving time of IoT hardware development.

dsgw 210b pic

Based on the LoRaWAN protocol, the DSGW-210B is a full 8-channel Indoor Gateway with built-in Ethernet connectivity for a simple setup. Additionally, it can be quickly configured using the default Wi-Fi AP mode thanks to an onboard Wi-Fi configuration (supporting 2.4 GHz/5GHz Wi-Fi). This LoRaWAN gateway achieves a high level of reliability thanks to its industrial-grade components.

dsgw 090 3

Zigbee 3.0/Z-Wave Plus/BLE 5 to Wi-Fi/LTE/Ethernet are supported by the highly integrated tiny box design of the DSGW-090 Zigbee/Z-Wave PoE gateway. It serves as a PoE (Power over Ethernet) gateway substitute for the DSGW-030 USB Zigbee gateway. DSGW-090 is additionally put in the ceiling.
The DSGW-090 is a residential wireless gateway bridge hub that is especially well suited for large-scale apartment and home IoT projects. It is meant to collect data from smart locks, temperature, humidity, motion, and power metres as well as communicate with public and private cloud platforms.

Use Cases for LoRaWAN Gateways

LoRaWAN gateways have multiple applications in cities and larger buildings. By installing various modules, you can expand the use of your LoRaWAN gateway for smart city projects; tracking of vehicles, objects or pets; or management of your smart home devices. The vast number of connections available through the gateway, in addition to its low power consumption and bandwidth requirements, makes the protocol fully scalable and still affordable to use.

LoRaWAN Gateways for Asset Tracking

Whether you’re using LoRaWAN to track customers’ beloved pets, or their packages as they leave a warehouse for delivery, Dusun LoRaWAN gateways’ wide range provides an effective way to do it. You can use your AWS IoT core or another server for tracking across a long distance. Add as many gateways as you need based on your logistics locations and the pathway of your packages.

LoRaWAN gateways and LPWANs help logistics companies by tracking not just the positions of assets, but characteristics such as the speed it’s traveling, the package’s temperature and other industry- or asset-specific details that may affect delivery. 

LoRaWAN for Utilities Management

As smart electric and water meters grow in popularity, utility providers can benefit from the capabilities of LoRaWAN gateways and LPWANS to track water and electric use within businesses, apartments and other households. Companies can then bill based on the amount of water and electricity used or time-of-day, or reward households and businesses for conserving resources. The data sent from the LPWAN can also be used to expedite service and maintenance of these systems as needed.

You may also be interested in LoRaWAN smart city

LoRaWAN for Agricultural Industry Projects

The use of LoRaWAN is growing in agricultural projects, as well. Farmers are using LoRaWAN, thanks to its low power consumption and wide range, to monitor soil health and adapt fertilizer. The data collected by the sensors also enables historical tracking for better crop management long term.

LoRaWAN is also used for irrigation control, to minimize water waste and reduce costs. Other capabilities include cattle monitoring, environmental monitoring, and farm asset management to better track and control the entire supply chain. The implications for food production and distribution are huge, especially today, as food prices increase across the U.S. 

You may be interested in LoRaWAN livestock cattle tracking

Should You Use a LoRaWAN Gateway in Your Next Project?

Deciding whether to use a LoRaWAN gateway in your next project depends on several factors and considerations. Here are some points to help you make an informed decision:

Range and Coverage

If your project requires long-range communication and coverage over a wide area, a LoRaWAN gateway can be beneficial. LoRaWAN technology can transmit data over several kilometers, making it suitable for applications like smart cities, agriculture monitoring, and industrial IoT where devices are spread across large areas.

Power Efficiency

If your devices need to operate on battery power for extended periods without frequent replacements or recharging, LoRaWAN’s low-power characteristics make it a good choice. Using a LoRaWAN gateway allows devices to transmit data over long distances while conserving power, which is crucial for applications where accessibility or power infrastructure is limited.

Scalability and Number of Devices

If your project involves a significant number of devices or requires the ability to scale the network as it grows, LoRaWAN gateways offer the advantage of easy scalability. You can add more gateways to extend coverage and accommodate a larger number of devices without significant infrastructure changes.

Cost Considerations

LoRaWAN gateways can be cost-effective compared to alternative connectivity solutions, especially in scenarios where large coverage areas are required. However, it’s essential to evaluate the overall cost of the gateway, devices, and infrastructure against your project’s budget and requirements.

Application Requirements

Consider the specific needs of your project and whether LoRaWAN technology aligns with those requirements. Evaluate factors such as data rate, latency, payload size, and the ability to handle different types of data. Additionally, assess the compatibility and availability of LoRaWAN devices and sensors for your application.

If you are looking for a scalable and affordable solution for smart home technology, logistics tracking or smart city management, a LoRaWAN gateway is rapidly becoming the industry standard to connect with many systems. Modules add flexibility to the systems, allowing the LoRaWAN gateway to track various types of data.

The fact that LoRaWAN protocols are encrypted, rate-adaptive and have multipath concurrent reception makes them suitable for virtually any IoT project today and in the future. contact us via chat or side form and Dusun IoT team will help you choose the best LoRaWAN gateway for your IoT application.

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LoRaWAN Gateway FAQs

Does LoRaWAN require a SIM card?

A wireless protocol called LoRaWAN uses low power, great range, and slow data rates. In the Americas/ANZ it operates at 900MHz, while in Europe/Asia it operates at 868MHz. No SIM card is needed to access these networks; only a LoRaWAN radio and individual ID are needed.

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